Minggu, 14 Oktober 2012

TEORI DAN MATERI LATIHAN NARRATIVE TEXT



TEORI DAN MATERI  LATIHAN  NARRATIVE TEXT
Teks Narrative kita kenal juga sebagai teks naratif dalam bahasa Indonesia. Hanya saja dalam bahasa Inggris, teks Narrative memiliki lingkup yang lebih sempit. Seperti kita tahu yang namanya teks Naratif yang ada dalam pelajaran bahasa Indonesia itu adalah teks tentang cerita, baik itu cerita tentang pengalaman seseorang, cerita lucu, dongeng, mitos, legenda, fable, dll.
Namun dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris contoh teks tersebut dibagi dalam Teks Narrative, Spoof, dan Recount. Misalnya saja kalau teks tentang pengalaman seseorang dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris disebut Recount, teks cerita yang lucu disebut Spoof. Nah.. kalau Narrative adalah teks yang berupa dongeng, mitos, legenda, fable, dll.

Teks Narrative adalah teks yang menceritakan sebuah kisah yang sudah terjadi di masa lampau. Makanya kata kerja yang digunakan menggunakan bentuk Past Form. Misalnya:
Long time ago, there lived a woman near the river.
Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up.

Example:
CONTOH Text .1  (Fabel)
A group of frogs were travelling through the woods, and two of them fell into a deep pit. When the other frogs saw how deep the pit was, they told the two frogs that they were as good as dead. The two frogs ignored the comments and tried to jump up out of the pit with all their might. The other frogs kept telling them to stop, that they were as good as dead.
 
Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up. He fell down and died.

The other frog continued to jump as hard as he could. Once again, the crowd of frogs yelled at him to stop the pain and just die. He jumped even harder and finally made it out.
When he got out, the other frogs said, “Did you not hear us?” The frog explained to them that he was deaf. He thought they were encouraging him the entire time.

Note: Fabel menceritakan kisah yang diperankan oleh hewan di mana kita bisa mendapatkan pesan moral dalam cerita tersebut yaitu ‘There is power of life and death in the tongue’.

CONTOH Text .2  (Myth)
Once upon a time in the heavens the Batara Guru commanded all the gods and goddesses to contribute their power in order to build a new palace. Anybody who disobeyed this commandment would lose his or her head.

Upon hearing the Batara Guru’’s commandment, one of the gods, Anta, was very anxious. He didn’t have arms or legs and he wasn’t sure how he could possibly do the job. Anta was shaped as a snake and he couldn’t work. He sought advice from one of his friends but unfortunately his friend was also confused by 

Anta’s bad luck. Anta became very upset and cried.
As he was crying three teardrops fell to the ground. Amazingly, after touching the ground those teardrops became three eggs. His friend advised him to offer those eggs to the Batara Guru hoping that he would give a fair judgement.

With the three eggs in his mouth Anta went to the Batara Guru’s palace. On the way there he was approached by a black bird who asked him a question. He couldn’t answer because of the eggs in his mouth but the bird thought that Anta was being arrogant. It became furious and began to attack Anta and as a result one egg was shattered. Anta quickly tried to hide in the bushes but the bird was waiting for him.

The second attack left Anta with only one egg to offer to the Batara Guru.
Finally he arrived at the palace and offered his teardrop (in the shape of an egg) to the Batara Guru. The offer was accepted and the Batara Guru asked him to nest the egg until it hatched. Miraculously the egg hatched into a very beautiful girl. He gave the baby girl to the Batara Guru and his wife.

Nyi Pohi Sanghian Sri was her name and she grew up into a beautiful princess becoming more and more beautiful as the days passed by. As her beauty grew every man who saw her became attracted to her. Even her stepfather the Batara Guru started to feel an attraction toward her.

Seeing the Batara Guru’s new attitude toward Nyi Pohaci, all the gods became so worried about the situation that they conspired to separate Nyi Pohaci and the Batara Guru.
To keep the peace in the heavens and to maintain Nyi Pohaci’s good name, all the gods planned for her death. She was poisoned and her body buried on earth in a hidden place. But the graveyard was to hold a strange sign, for at the time of her burial, up grew a very useful plant that would forever benefit all human beings.
From her eyes grew the plant that is called padi (rice paddy).

Note: Mitos adalah teks yang menceritakan tentang terjadinya alam semesta, dunia, kisah para dewa, dll. Mitos di Indonesia biasanya menceritakan tentang terjadinya alam semesta, terjadinya susunan para dewa, terjadinya manusia pertama, dunia dewata, dan terjadinya makanan pokok. Mengenai mitos terjadinya padi, dikenal adanya Dewi Sri yang dianggap sebagai dewi padi orang Jawa.

CONTOH Text .3  (Legend)
A long long time ago in west Sumatra, Indonesia there was a fisherman and his wife who lived in a village by the sea. They had only one son. His name was Malin Kundang. They lived a simple life because as a fisherman the husband did not earn much money. Life got harder for Malin and his mother when his father did not return from the sea. Perhaps a storm had swollen his boat or maybe a big fish attacked him. Day by day passed and they kept waiting for him. But Malin’s father never returned. So little Malin had to help her mother sold cookies in a local market.
One day there was a big ship came to the beach of their village. It was a merchant ship. Everybody came to see it including Malin. He was very impressed by what he saw. Hoping to change his life he applied for a job and he was lucky. He was recruited by the ship owner. Then Malin left his mother and his village.
Many years gone by without any news from Malin. Malin’s mother missed him so much. Everyday she looked at the sea, hoping to see Malin came home. She always prayed to God that Malin become a successful merchant. Then God heard her pray.
On a beautiful day there was a big ship came to the beach. Many people came there to see it. Malin’s mother was expectant. She was sure that it was Malin’s ship. So she hurriedly came to the beach. When she was there she asked someone that she wanted to see the owner of the ship. Then a lovely lady met her. She wore a luxurious dress and jewellry. She was Malin’s wife.
‘Is Malin Kundang here?’
“Do you know Malin?”
‘Yes, of course I know him, he’s my son!’
‘But Malin told me he had no mother. She passed away a long time ago’.
Malin’s mother was very surprised to hear her answer. Then Malin came. Her wife asked him.
‘This poor woman said that you are his son’
Malin Kundang who had became a rich merchant and had a wife from a rich family was ashame with his mother who looked poor. He denied his humble background. So when her mother hugged him he repelled her.
‘Malin, my son, I miss you so much’.
‘Who are you? I am not your son’.
Malin’s mother was was crying. She was really irritated. Her heart was deeply hurt. Then she prayed to God. And she cursed Malin.
Suddenly there was a storm. The sea was raging. Big wave came and Malin’s ship was rushed ashore and destroyed. And Malin suddenly changed into a stone statue. Today people can see Malin’s statue in Teluk Bayur beach in west Sumatra. When there is a storm or rain people often hear someone’s crying. They believe it is Malin’s cry.

Note: Legenda adalah cerita yang dipercaya oleh sebagian masyarakat benar-benar terjadi.
legenda adalah dongeng tentang hal-hal yang berdasarkan sejarah yang mengandung sesuatu hal yang ajaib atau kejadian yang menandakan kesaktian.

Conclusion:
The social function of Narrative is to amuse or entertain the readers with actual or imaginary experience in different ways. Narrative always deals with some problems which lead to the climax and then turn into a solution to the problem.
 
There are three kinds of Generic Structure:
1. Orientation (who was involved, when and where was it happened)
2. Complication (a problem arises and followed by other problems)
3. Resolution (provide solution to the problem)
 
Language features:
1. Use of noun phrases (a beautiful princess, a huge temple)
2. Use of adverbial phrases of time and place (In the garden, two days ago)
3. Use of simple past tense (He walked away from the village)
4. Use of action verbs (walked, slept)
5. Use of adjectives phrases (long black hair)

Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar